martes, 20 de agosto de 2013

Alexander Shorokhof New Master Piece - Replica de relojes

Alexander Shorokhoff 

Puskin con esfera esmaltada en verde y rana. 

Bisel de diamantes


Mecánico automático, calibre 2000-1 ETA.


Hora, minutos y segundos. Fecha.

Caja Acero inoxidable, con diamantes en el bisel.

Cristal de zafiro.

Fondo transparente de cristal de zafiro.

Resistente al agua hasta 30 m.

Esfera Esmalte verde realizado a mano, con una rana pintada en la zona inferior izquierda.

Pulsera Correa de piel de cocodrilo con cierre de seguridad tipo mariposa.

Precio: 5.150 € (Según catálogo 2011) 

Precio replica astrario: 350

jueves, 18 de julio de 2013

Rolex Explorer Ref. 14270 - by replica de relojes


REF. 14270

Explorer, medium close dial
Explorer 14270

Among the watches in Rolex’s current production, the Oyster Perpetual Explorer (Ref. 14270, but known popularly as “The Explorer 1″) stands in the lower-middle segment of the stainless steel line: a COSC certified center-seconds caliber 3000, without date, retailing for approximately $2,500. The Explorer is also, perhaps, the most historically connected model in the line, deriving from a long line of very similar Explorer designs.

The watch is supplied in a 36 millimeter steel “Oyster” case, with an attached steel “Flip Lock” Oyster bracelet. The case is approximately 11.5 millimeters thick. 

 The relatively simple three piece case (bezel, band, and back) is clearly strong and rigid. (Rigidity is an important issue in maintaining water-resistance in use that involves impact that can distort the alignment of the case.) While the bezel and band sides (which are integral with the strap lugs) are polished, the upper horizontal surface of band and lugs is brushed. The brushing shows a slight unevenness on the case band, especially between the lugs and should be more consistent in a watch of this cost. The polished sides of the case, however, are
an unusual, peculiarly appealing double-horn shape characteristic of many Rolexes, and are
sumptuously polished so that the metal has almost the luster of white gold (right). The uncoated sapphire crystal, as can be seen, is set largely outside the bezel. The internal surfaces and backs of the lugs are not as well finished as the top and side surfaces, and even with the bracelet in place, the inside lower lug edges and tips  are uncomfortably sharp (below left). 
They should be slightly radiused to eliminate this unpleasant feel. The completely unadorned back is nicely brushed, and shows the familiar Rolex serrated wrench ring (yellow arrow, left).

This back design requires a special bit that matches the serrations on the back. The Bergeon bit for the Rolex (#5, 29.5 millimeters) is shown below right. The Rolex system is perhaps
the finest screwed back design in production. Used properly, it allows removal–and reattachment–of even the tightest backs without the slightest

visible mark left on the watch. Most designs–with holes, slots, or hexagonal protrusions–are nearly impossible to use without some visible evidence left behind. To be properly used, however, the Rolex wrench and back must be perfectly parallel and stable, and this generally requires a true case opener, rather than a hand wrench. The Bergeon 5700 opener, as shown below left, clamps the watch firmly

in a horizontal position between two rigid nylon blocks and allows the bit to be lowered onto the watch in perfect alignment. It is a shame that other manufacturers do not use similar designs. The design does not, however, lend itself to the use of hand wrenches with the watch improperly supported. The many scratched Rolex backs that watchmakers report are undoubtedly due to the use of unstable and poorly-aligned hand wrenches.


The black enameled dial of the Explorer is elaborated with a painted white minute track, white gold bar markets filled with tritium, and white gold Arabic numerals at three, six, and nine. 

The tritium-filled hands are also made in white gold.  To my tastes, the markers and hands are oversized and give the dial a cramped and busy appearance. The flat, uncoated sapphire also causes strong reflections that add to the difficulty in easily reading the time. Taste aside, the dial and hands are detailed, extremely well made,and immaculately finished. I would imagine that, together, they represent a significant portion of the manufacturing costs of this watch.



For a watch that it is in some ways about its steel bracelet, it is remarkable that this bracelet looks so much like an after-thought. The beautiful case shape and lugs–which were clearly originally designed for use with a strap–are visually almost completely destroyed by the
bracelet. Furthermore, the bracelet is not only unintegrated with the watch aesthetically, but physically as well. It is attached to the lugs with standard springs bars (as if it were a strap), and an “insert”

is placed between bracelet and case to fillthe space between the two. The insert hangs on the spring bar; two awkward (and exposed) tabs behind the lugs stabilize it. Despite the insert having a single purpose–to fill the space between the lugs–it does so very crudely, following neither the contour of the case, nor the lugs. The design and fit is as awkward and unattractive as anything I recall seeing on a production watch. The clasp for the bracelet is comprised of stamped steel pieces that feel cheap, and seem obviously
inappropriate in a watch of this cost.




The Explorer houses a Rolex caliber 3000, a 12.5 ligne (28.5 millimeter) 5.8 millimeter thick, 27 jewel, 28,8000 BPH automatic. Although the movement is largely conventional in design, there are a few unusual design features.

The bidirectional automatic winding system is similar to the ETA/Eterna system in using a pair of double-click wheels for winding reverse. (For an explanation of how this system works, see the
Horologium article “Anatomy of an $85 Watch: The Swatch Automatic.”) The two “red” wheels appear to be fabricated of a light alloy, and are coated with PTFE (“Teflon”) for lubrication of the outer teeth and inner clicks .


Shown right,the upper PTFE-coated wheel can be seen inverted at the blue arrow, the inner-lower wheel at the yellow arrow. (The red arrow indicates the transmission wheel for hand winding.) Because both upper wheels rotate continuously during movement of the winding rotor in such a double click wheel system, the large size of the wheels may have dictated the light alloy to reduce their mass and thus improve winding efficiency. The alloy is probably also quieter in operation that steel parts would be. I do not know whether the PTFE coating provides the durability that conventionally lubricated steel parts would offer. The automatic winding
system is the single best-finished part of the movement.


A clever, efficient and cost-saving design solution is also seen in the mounting of the winding rotor shaft, illustrated at left. The top of third wheel jewel has an oddly shaped recess that supports the bottom pivot of the rotor shaft. Thus, a single jewel supports the third wheel from above and the rotor from below. A possible shortcoming in this arrangement might be that a significant shock to the watch would cause the considerable mass of the rotor to displace the friction-fit jewel and disturb the third wheel pinion end-play. The rotor shaft is secured to its mounting in the automatic winding bridge only by a circlip, and shows considerable side-play in operating position. 

I am told by naturalsizeflag=”3″ alt=”Rotor and automatic winding bridge”>Rolex service people that this is a not uncommon source of trouble in the otherwise sturdy winding system. The simplicity and over-sized design of the automatic winding system characterizes the entire caliber 3000. 
The well-finished rotor, inverted and attached to the winding bridge, is shown at right.

The only other unusual design feature of the caliber 3000 is the use of a flat (i.e. without overcoil) hairspring without a regulator and an extremely simple version of an adjustable-mass
balance, illustrated below left. The green arrow indicates one of the four screws used to provide adjustment of the center of mass of the balance and thus control the rate of the watch. What at first appears to be a regulator (yellow arrow) is, in fact, simply a movable balance spring stud to allow easy adjustment of beat. The Glucydur balance with four screws–called a Microstella balance by Rolex–  

provides an  extremely simple solution to rate regulation that is also, undoubtedly, less expensive
than a conventional regulator. By contrast, the conceptually similar Gyromax balance of Patek Philippe is a refined and expensive system with eight top-mounted rotating, slotted weights. Both systems offer the advantage of not introducing the adjustment complications of a regulator; but both also make simple rate adjustments a more complex and time-consuming task. The Patek system, however, makes screwdriver access (to rotate the weights) from above an easy matter. The Rolex system relies on rotation of the serrated screw heads from the side, presumably with a screwdriver blade, unless the balance is removed from the watch (in which case a special “star” wrench could be used). Judging by the significant damage on all four screws (due to adjustment at the factory), this is not an easy task, at least if it is to be accomplished without damage. (Enough metal had been gouged from the screw heads in this movement that balance poise may well have been affected, damage that would not necessarily appear in the timing figures, but might make future timing adjustments more difficult.) This photograph also illustrates the KIF shock protection for the escape wheel (blue arrow).


On the electronic timer the Explorer showed excellent performance, in a class with many top-notch watches. In the adjusted five positions it showed a daily variation of three seconds per day between the fastest and slowest positions (plus one second crown left and crown up; minus two seconds dial up and dial down). A five second variation on this parameter is a widely accepted standard for high quality, fully adjusted watches. Dial up and dial down readings were virtually identical in terms of rate, beat, and amplitude (a good measure of the condition of balance pivots and vertical centering, or flatness, of the balance spring). The unadjusted position, crown right, was well within the parameters of the adjusted positions at minus two seconds. 

In daily use, the watch turned in a good, if not outstanding, performance, losing about three to five seconds in various measured 24-hour periods. 


Assuming a lift angle of 52 degrees (Rolex Service in New York would not supply me with this figure which cannot be readily determined from the watch itself), the amplitude was more than adequate, though not exceptional: 294 degrees in horizontal positions, and 244 to 259 in the various vertical positions. Very fine, well-serviced watches usually provide 310 degrees or better in horizontal positions, 260 or better in vertical positions. Amplitude is a measure of the total efficiency of the movement, and good amplitude is essential to positional adjustments and rating.


Beat error fell between zero and 0.3 milliseconds in the various positions, a good performance. Unfortunately, the lowest beat errors were adjusted into the least critical positions, crown up
and crown right (both zero). This put the dial up position at 0.2 and the crown down position at 0.3 milliseconds error, positions in which one would normally seek the least error. My only other concern about timer performance is in the intermittent beat error indicated at the
blue arrows and inset in the tape illustrated above. While slight variations in beat (in any given position) are almost always apparent in most watches, the error in this watch was an almost perfectly regular, rhythmic error that suggests an irregularity in the escape wheel–possibly an out-of-round condition or a damaged or malformed tooth. Without counting escape wheel teeth (there are more than the usual 15) and timer ticks, I could not be sure of this relationship.

miércoles, 26 de junio de 2013

Dewitt Tourbillon Force - Replica Watch


Academia Tourbillon Force Constante à Chaîne by DEWITT


Has enhanced its legendary constant force tourbillon with a system that relays energy to its associated power reserve indicator. Rotating the crown when winding the barrel-spring drives a miniature chain, which uses an intermediate wheel to activate the power reserve indicator sliding on a worm screw. Three years after developing an ingenious patented regulating system - three extra wheels transmitting impulses of identical force to the tourbillon, whatever the barrel's degree of tension - DeWitt has now taken innovation to even greater heights.


Technical Specifications :

Manually-wound, DW8050 calibre, tourbillon with constant-force device, 25 rubies, 21,600 vib/h, 72-hour chain-driven power reserve, flat balance-spring

Hours, minutes, power reserve indicator

950 platinum, 43 mm
Sapphire crystal front and back

Black with Côtes de Genève decoration
Opening over constant-force device at 8 o'clock
Opening over tourbillon cage at 5 o'clock
Rail power reserve at 10 o'clock

Black alligator leather with 750 platinum folding clasp

JeanRichard aeroscope - Replica de relojes


Modelo : JeanRichard Aeroscope



Colección - Aeroscope
 Movimiento - Mecánico automático
Calibre - Calibre JR66
Caja - Titanio pulido y satinado
Fondo - Fondo atornillado en titanio, grabado
Cristal - Cristal de zafiro con tratamiento antirreflejos
Diámetro - 46 mm
Año - 2013

miércoles, 5 de junio de 2013

Watch IWC History / Historia de los Relojes suizos IWC

History of : Internacional Watch Company

IWC Grande Complication

In 1868, an American engineer and watchmaker Florentine Ariosto Jones (1841–1916) who had been a director of E. Howard & Co., in Boston, then America's leading watchmaking company, founded the International Watch Company with the intention of combining the craftsmanship of the Swiss with the modern engineering technology from the U.S. to manufacture movements and watch parts for the American market." At the time, wages in Switzerland were relatively low although there was a ready supply of skilled watchmaking labor" mainly carried out by people in their homes. Jones encountered opposition to his plans in French-speaking Switzerland because people feared for their jobs"and the work they did at home because Jones wanted to open a factory.

In 1850 the town of Schaffhausen was in danger of being left behind in the Industrial Age. It was at this stage that watch manufacturer and industrialist Johann Heinrich Moser stepped in and did the region a huge service. As a pioneer of hydropower, he built Schaffhausen's first hydroelectric plant and laid the cornerstone for future industrialization." He probably met F.A. Jones in Le Locle and showed great interest in his plans. Together, they laid the foundations for the only watch manufacturers in north-eastern Switzerland: The International Watch Company in Schaffhausen.

IWC factory in Schaffhausen.

In 1869 F.A. Jones rented the first factory premises in an industrial building owned by J.H. Moser in Rheinstraße. Very soon he had to rent further rooms in the Oberhaus, one of the oldest buildings in Schaffhausen. By 1874 plans were already being made for a new factory and a site was purchased from Moser's hydroelectric company which was directly adjacent to the banks of the Rhine and called the Baumgarten. Schaffhausen architect G. Meyer won the order to design and build the factory. A year later, in the spring of 1875, the construction work was completed. At first, 196 people worked in the 45 meter long factory, which could accommodate up to 300 workplaces.

IWC and the Rauschenbach family

 The Portuguese series of watches

Johann Rauschenbach-Vogel, Chief Executive Officer and a machine manufacturer from Schaffhausen, took over the INTERNATIONALE UHRENFABRIK on 17 February 1880. Four generations of the Rauschenbach family owned IWC, with varying names.

Only a year after the sale, Johannes Rauschenbach died. His son, Johannes Rauschenbach-Schenk, was 25 years old when he took over the UHRENFABRIK VON J. RAUSCHENBACH and ran it successfully until his own death on 2 March 1905.

Another significant role on the way to the company's success was played by Urs Haenggi from Nunningen in the canton of Solothurn. He had got to know the watch business in French-speaking Switzerland and France; in 1883 he joined IWC and stayed with the company for 52 years. He was responsible for getting factory operations up and running smoothly and acquiring new customers. He was also responsible for warding off the prospect of the outside interests acquiring IWC "in the interest of the noble Rauschenbach family".

After the death of J. Rauschenbach-Schenk in 1905, his wife, two daughters and their husbands, Ernst Jakob Homberger (director of G. Fischer AG in Schaffhausen) and Dr. Carl Jung (psychoanalyst and psychiatrist), took over the watch factory as an open trading company by the name of the UHRENFABRIK VON J. RAUSCHENBACH'S ERBEN. E.J. Homberger was the only authorized signatory, Haenggi and Vogel were directors.

Following the death of his father-in-law, Ernst Jakob Homberger had a considerable influence on the Schaffhausen watchmaking company's affairs and guided it through one of the most turbulent epochs in Europe's history. Just before the world economic crisis, he took over as sole proprietor and renamed the company UHRENFABRIK VON ERNST HOMBERGER-RAUSCHENBACH, formerly INTERNATIONAL WATCH CO. His contribution was honored in 1952, when he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of St. Gallen. He died in 1955, aged 85 years.

Hans Ernst Homberger was the third and last of the Rauschenbach heirs to run the factory as a sole proprietor. He had joined his father's company in 1934 and took control after his death in April 1955. In 1957 he added a new wing to the factory and in the same year set up a modern pension fund for the staff. He bought new machines to meet new demands and continuously brought his production technology up to what were considered the very latest standards. He died in 1986 at the age of 77.

Prominent technicians

Technician Johann Vogel from Wangen an der Aare in Solothurn played an important role as technical director. He designed and developed IWC calibers until 1919.
In 1885, IWC manufactured the first digital watch based on a patent granted to an Austrian by the name of Pallweber. It was a simple design, but was unable to replace the traditional analogue display.

Electrical era

In 1888 electricity began to take over at the watch factory. J. Rauschenbach had a power line installed which supplied it with electricity. During the first few years the electrical power was probably used only for lighting purposes and the galvanic gold-plating of watch movement parts. Shortly before the turn of the century, the company started converting its production machines to electricity. An electric motor made by Brown, Boveri & Co. from Baden powered the engines in the factory, transmitting the energy via a complicated arrangement of shafts and drive belts in the factory workshops. These were later replaced during the 1930s with individually powered machines.


During the period just before and after the First World War, E.J. Homberger devoted himself to devising and setting up social institutions. He extended the living quarters for factory employees and established a fund for widows and orphans. In 1929, the name of the fund was changed to the J.Rauschenbach Foundation and in 1949 he founded the Watch Company Welfare Foundation.

On April 1, 1944, as a result of a fatal error, Schaffhausen was bombed by the United States Army Air Forces. The watch factory was hit by a bomb which failed to detonate after crashing through the rafters. The flames from incendiaries exploding nearby penetrated the building through the broken windows but were extinguished by the company's own fire brigade.

After World War II, IWC was forced to change its focus. All of Eastern Europe had fallen under the Iron Curtain, and the economy of Germany was in shambles. As a result, old contacts and connections with other countries in Europe and the Americas as well as Australia and the Far East were revived and intensified or established.

1970s - present

The IWC Da Vinci (Musée International d'Horlogerie, La Chaux-De-Fonds, Switzerland)

In the 1970s and 80s, the Swiss watchmaking industry underwent a phase of far-reaching technological change. Following in the wake of the use of miniaturized electric batteries as a source of energy for wristwatches from the late 1940s onwards and the invention of the transistor in 1947, purely mechanical watch technology developed into a hybrid discipline of precision mechanics and electronics.
IWC managed to avoid investing heavily in expensive and eventually unsuccessful technologies, such as the electronically controlled balance. The UHRENFABRIK H. E. HOMBERGER co-founded and was a shareholder in the "Centre Électronique Horloger" (CEH) in Neuchâtel and was financially involved in the development of the Beta 21 quartz wristwatch movement, which was first presented to the public at the 1969 Industrial Fair in Basel. In actual value terms, this movement accounted for about 5-6% of total sales of quartz watches. Parallel to this, the company expanded its collection of jeweler watches to include ladies watches with mechanical movements. The year 1973 was IWC's most successful of the post-war period.

The cataclysmic rise in gold prices in 1974 had grave consequences for the watch exporting industry. Between 1970 and 1974 the price of gold rose from 4850 to 18 000 francs and the value of the dollar against the Swiss currency plummeted by up to 40%. As a result, the price of watch exports rose by as much as 250%. At the same time Japan was flooding the market with cheap quartz watches.
A change of direction was necessary and this led to the adoption of a number of measures. In order to survive, IWC, under the leadership of Director and CEO Otto Heller, built up a line of high-quality pocket watches, and, apart from setting up its own modern wristwatch and case manufacturing facilities, began working closely with Ferdinand A. Porsche as an external designer. In addition, IWC pioneered new watchmaking technologies, notably the first titanium bracelets, developed in 1978.

For its new plans IWC required a high level of venture capital. With the help of the Swiss Banking Corporation, the company was put in contact with VDO Adolf Schindling AG, which took a majority interest in IWC in 1978.

The IWC GST (Ref. 3707)

At the same time, IWC reacquired the name it had originally been given by its founder F.A. Jones (INTERNATIONAL WATCH CO. AG).
In 1981, Kawal Singh succeeded H.E. Homberger as general manager following the latter's retirement on age grounds. The new director, Günter Blümlein, pushed for rapid implementation of planned changes, put the existing advertising campaign to work, built up the customer base, and solidified IWC's finances.
In 1991 IWC director Günter Blümlein founded the LMH Group with its headquarters in Schaffhausen. With a 100% stake in IWC, 60% in Jaeger-LeCoultre and 90% in the Saxony-based watchmaking company of A. Lange & Söhne, the Group employed some 1440 persons.

In July 2000, LMH was acquired by Richemont, a Zug-based luxury goods group, for CHF 2.8 bn. Despite the takeover by Richemont, IWC was guaranteed that it would continue to be managed by the same executives from the LMH Group.
In the year 2001 IWC went online with the Collectors Forum.

Sales history

The company began keeping detailed records for every watch that has left the factory since 1885. Since 1885, details of the caliber, materials used and cases have been entered into the records. In the case of later models, these also include the reference number, delivery date and the name of the authorized dealer. For a small fee, the owner can obtain precise information about their watch, as long as the watch is at least ten years old.
The company claims that its service department has the parts and is capable of repairing and maintaining watches from every era since IWC's foundation in 1868."

IWC movements

Movements in the bulk of IWC's lower range watches and chronographs (including the Portuguese Chronograph) use movements delivered directly from Swatch-owned ETA, previously in line with industry practice IWC purchased ebauche kits from ETA and its subsidiary Valjoux which it heavily modified but due to ETA's decision to stop selling ebauche kits to its competitors it now delivers the movements fully completed. It is no longer the case that the Caliber 30110 is a modified ETA 2892A2, and the Caliber 79230/79320/79350 is a modified ETA/Valjoux 7750. The shift began taking place in approximately 2006 according to industry sources and was entirely complete across all movements by 2010.

Movements not based on ETA movements include the Caliber 5000 and the Caliber 8000, which use the Pellaton winding system, and the pocket watch movements used in the Portuguese F.A. Jones and other IWC pocket watches. IWC also used a JLC meca-quartz movement in their older Portofino chronographs.

On-line auction

Since 1997, IWC has been offering a unique horological item for on-line auction annually on its website. The proceeds are donated to the Ecole des Sables – Antoine de Saint Exupéry school in Mali. The school provides education for Tuareg children.

In 2007, the Company auctioned a platinum version of the Pilot's Watch Automatic Edition Antoine de Saint Exupéry, Reference 3201. The watch was made as a tribute to the French author and aviation pioneer. It was auctioned together with an original copy of Exupery's debut novel, Courrier Sud (Southern Mail), featuring a handwritten dedication by the author.

 In 2009 IWC introduced the Big Pilot edition Antoine de Saint Exupéry in 1900 pieces. Only one of them will be in platinum and will be auctioned for charity.

lunes, 27 de mayo de 2013

El Calibre ETA 2892: confiable y fino caballo de batalla mecánico

Nada mejor para apreciar un reloj mecánico, su complicación, belleza intrínseca y por qué no, su costo, que analizar las entrañas de uno. A continuación hago esto con el más exitoso calibre de ETA y que se usa en los relojes de alto perfil de muchas marcas. Para los que recién se inician en el conocimiento de la relojería mecánica



El movimiento ETA 2892.A2, la última versión del calibre 2892, es un diseño que data de 1983. El diseño original de los 1970´s se basaba en un muy buen calibre de Eterna, el 1466U, que a su vez es de los años 1950´s. Durante todo este tiempo el ETA2892 ha demostrado su solidez, durabilidad y en su versión más elaborada, una precisión que no envidia a ningún movimiento. En general los ingenieros de relojería ven al 2892 como un calibre de la misma calidad y categoría de desempeño que los de manufactura. Incluso la casa de Schaffhausen (IWC), famosa por sus finísimos y precisos movimientos de manufactura propia, ha usado al ETA 2892 como base para algunos de sus modelos más populares como el Portofino o el Mark XV y XVI. El 2892 está equipado con las partes más finas que ETA produce y es un calibre automatico de 21 joyas, disponible en tres ejecuciones o grados: Elaboré, Top y Chronomètre. Los componentes clave que distinguen a un Top de un Elaboré o un Chronomètre, son las paletas del áncora, el volante, la espiral y el mecanismo regulador o registro. En el caso de los dos grados más finos (Top y Chronomètre), son los materiales y la especificación de acabado funcional (un buen acabado reduce la fricción) lo que produce un mejor desempeño y confiabilidad del calibre.

En particular, el volante está hecho de níquel en el caso del Elaboré. En el caso de los grados Top y Chronomètre, el material usado en este calibre es el Glucydur, una aleación de berilio, hierro y cobre. Para la espiral del volante, ETA usa Nivarox II para el Elaboré y Nivarox Anachron en los otros dos grados. El Nivarox es una aleación de hierro níquel y cromo principalmente, con pequeñas cantidades de titanio y berilio. De las variedades de Nivarox la más fina es la conocida como Anachron. La razón de usar estas aleaciones para los volantes, espirales y hasta para algunas ruedas del tren de rodaje, es que tienen una combinación de propiedades útiles en la maquinaria de los relojes: son relativamente amagnéticas, muy durables, conservan su forma y tamaño en un rango de temperaturas bastante amplio (-10 ˚C a +40 ˚C) además de ser resistentes al óxido.

Para ilustrar las diferencias en exactitud que cada grado puede ofrecer, basta con observar las especificaciones de cada uno. El grado Elaboré es susceptible de ajustar en 4 posiciones con promedio entre ellas de +/-5 segundos (s) al día con una variación máxima diaria de +/-20 s por día. El grado Top debe poderse ajustar en 5 posiciones con una variación promedio de +/-4 s por día y con una variación máxima diaria de +/-15 s. Al grado Chronomètre se le pide además pasar las pruebas de COSC, que es una cuestión, en esencia, de ajuste.

El movimiento es relativamente pequeño y muy popular entre los fabricantes de relojes debido a su perfil muy delgado de únicamente 3.6 mm a pesar de ser un calibre automático. Por otro lado también dispone de una reserva de marcha fuerte y de torque relativamente constante que lo ha hecho un favorito para añadirle un sinnúmero de complicaciones (que consumen parte de la energía potencial almacenada en la espiral de la cuerda) como cronógrafos, fechadores perpetuos, fases lunares etc.

Desde su propia concepción, el calibre fue diseñado para ser automático, lo que significa que el sistema de remonte automático de la cuerda está integrado y no añadido como un módulo aparte. La ventaja de esto es que el calibre resultante es muy delgado. Las dimensiones del ETA2892 son de 26.2 mm de diámetro y 3.6 mm de grosor. La frecuencia de oscilación es de 4 Hz, o lo que es equivalente, 28,800 alternancias por hora (aph). Esto lo convierte en un calibre de los denominados rápidos. Como comparación, los relojes de bolsillo del siglo XX oscilaban a 18,000 aph. La reserva de marcha es de aproximadamente 42 horas y cuenta con 21 rubíes o joyas para sustentar con el mínimo de fricción los ejes de las múltiples ruedas del calibre. Cuenta también con un regulador de marcha fino, sistema de protección al impacto incabloc y paro de segundero para facilitar la sincronización con una referencia horaria.

Iniciamos el análisis y disección del 2892 usando un 2892-2 de un reloj Hamilton. Comienzo mostrándolo después de removerse de la caja del reloj y la disección proseguirá hasta que no queden más que la platina y las demás piezas sueltas. En el camino comentaré las particularidades que hacen este calibre tan bueno así como sus debilidades.

La primera imagen muestra el calibre por detrás de la carátula y puede verse el rotor del sistema automático. El eje del rotor "semicircular"es bastante ancho y por lo tanto robusto, lo cual es una protección antichoques bastante eficiente para el sistema automático. Puede notarse que el rotor gira sobre un microbalero metálico.

Apreciamos a continuación la máquina sin el rotor ni el puente que lo sostiene. Este es un movimiento grado Elaboré, nótese la austeridad en el acabado de los puentes y platina que no tienen los terminados que caracterizan a los grados Top y Chronomètre . Un poco más abajo veremos la apariencia estos acabados.
Apreciamos a continuación la máquina sin el rotor ni el puente que lo sostiene. Este es un movimiento grado Elaboré, nótese la austeridad en el acabado de los puentes y platina que no tienen los terminados que caracterizan a los grados Top y Chronomètre . Un poco más abajo veremos la apariencia estos acabados.

Obsérvese el tren de rodaje completo que transmite la potencia desde el cubo o barrilete que contiene la cuerda y que es el cilindro grande visible en la parte superior del calibre. Desde el cubo, abajo a la izquierda puede verse la rueda central (aunque no está en el centro del movimiento). Luego abajo a la derecha le sigue la rueda primera o minutera y un poco más abajo se aprecia la rueda segunda o segundera, que está en el centro del calibre y cuenta con un vástago (no visible en la imagen) que atraviesa hasta el otro lado del movimiento y acciona la manecilla segundera del reloj. Finalmente abajo a la izquierda está la rueda de escape y que conecta la rueda segundera con el áncora y el volante que regula el reloj.

Veamos ahora el puente que sostiene al rotor y que quitamos de encima del movimiento para ver el rodaje. En la imagen el rotor está boca abajo y se ve sobre él el puente que lo une al calibre. Si se analizan esta imagen y la anterior junta se verá que el mencionado puente encaja dentro del movimiento, lo cual ahorra espacio y es en gran parte los que hace del ETA 2892 un calibre muy delgado.

Retirando los tornillos del puente y del rotor podemos estudiar ahora el mecanismo interno del sistema automático. El secreto del mismo son dos dobles ruedas (la 3a y la 4a de izq. a der.) que están diseñadas de tal manera que sin importar en qué dirección gire el rotor, la rueda que se conecta (la 1a de la izq.) con el cubo de la cuerda, siempre gira en una sola dirección, como lo requiere la cuerda por supuesto.

Del otro lado del movimiento, del lado de la carátula, encontramos la minutería o transmisión que mediante ruedas de engrane adecuadas convierte el movimiento del tren de rodaje del otro lado en la indicación de horas, minutos, segundos y fecha que ofrece este calibre.

Al centro, en color cobre encontramos el cañón de horas que naturalmente va conectado a la manecilla de las horas y concéntrico a éste el cañón de minutos (en plateado) así como el vástago que se une a la manecilla segundera (también en plateado). A la izquierda y arriba del cañón de horas se ve un engrane plateado intermedio a un engrane oro y plata con un apéndice dorado que gira una vez cada 24 horas y que produce el cambio de fecha al llegar la media noche. Opuesto a este sistema en la parte inferior derecha desde el cañón de horas, se puede apreciar un conjunto de pequeños engranes que culminan en uno plateado con un par de salientes que al girar la vara o vástago en la posición correcta, impulsa el disco numérico de la fecha un día a la vez para un ajuste rápido.

Al quitarse las placas que sostienen los engranes y el disco numérico puede verse la platina desnuda del lado de la carátula. Nótense también las joyas del sistema Incabloc antichoques (piedra rosada en la posición de las 12) así como los engranes la vara o tija y los muelles, que constituyen la transmisión desde la vara hacia cuerda y hacia la minutería para el cambio manual de hora y fecha.

Regresando al otro lado del movimiento tenemos abajo una imagen del 2892 ahora sin el volante ni su puente. Se ve claramente ahora el áncora con el puente que lo sostiene. Para esta imagen se usó un ETA 2892 de grado Top sacado de un reloj Bulgari, para dar una idea de las diferencias en los acabados respecto al primer movimiento en que mostramos el típico grado Elaboré.

Retiramos a continuación el puente del áncora y el áncora. También retiramos el puente que aparece en la parte superior y que descubre el barrilete o tambor de la cuerda, y el puente central que descubre por completo el rodaje. Además de las ruedas centrales, primera y segunda (en el centro), se ve junto a ésta última la rueda de escape, fácilmente discernible por sus largos dientes triangulares.

El puente del barrilete con sus componentes aparece boca abajo en la imagen siguiente. El orificio en el centro corresponde al eje del engrane dorado que se queda sobre el barrilete (ver imagen anterior arriba).

Al quitar la pequeña tapa metálica del lado izquierdo, el sistema que conecta el barrilete de la cuerda con el automático y con la vara para darle cuerda al reloj, aparece más claro. Los engranes del lado izquierdo se conectan con la vara (nótese el canal para la vara a la izquierda) y permiten darle cuerda al calibre de forma manual, mientras que el engrane del lado derecho se conecta directamente con es sistema de remonte automático.

El muelle que se aprecia tocando los dientes del engrane dorado y la parte superior del engrane plateado más pequeño, funciona como trinquete al atorar el engrane del barrilete para no perder el remonte o cuerda del reloj mientras se carga y también permite accionar la cuerda en una única dirección con un mecanismo muy simple. El eje ovalado del engrane pequeño y plateado, asegura que la vara pueda darle cuerda al calibre en un único sentido.

Al quitar las ruedas del rodaje así como el barrilete, nos queda la platina limpia junto con la vara. Como es común aún en los calibres más caros de manufactura, la platina es de latón recubierta con rodio para propósitos de estética y de protección a la corrosión.

Las piezas del rodaje junto con el áncora aparecen a continuación. De izquierda a derecha, la rueda central, la primera o minutera, la segundera y la rueda de escape. Los engranes se ven dorados ya que están hechos de Glucydur, mientras que los piñones en los ejes de los mismos son de acero. Esto es así porque al estar en contacto un piñón con una rueda dentada de material diferente, tienen menor fricción entre sí que si todo fuera del mismo material. Adicionalmente, la aleación de Glucydur es muy fuerte, poco susceptible a deformarse y resistente a la corrosión.

Hablando del rodaje es interesante que en los relojes de cuarzo, incluso los más finos, estas ruedas son de latón. Ya que el par de torsión sobre las ruedas en estos movimientos de cuarzo es muy bajo, no necesitan ser resistentes como en los relojes mecánicos.

Finalmente, el corazón motor del calibre, el barrilete o cubo. Dentro se encuentra el fleje o espiral de la cuerda que da vida al oscilador del volante para que lata de manera constante. En la imagen a continuación se aprecia la forma de los dientes que fue diseñada (con éxito) para minimizar la fricción al transmitir el torque del muelle real al rodaje.

Finalmente, el muelle real fuera del cubo con su brida que hace las veces de clutch y hace imposible que se le de cuerda de más al reloj ya que el muelle completo se resbalaría dentro del cubo sin causar daño alguno ni al fleje ni al movimiento. El muelle ocupa enrollado el 75% del espacio en el cubo y le permite al calibre funcionar unas 42 horas en total con toda la cuerda dada. Como es común en cualquier movimiento, únicamente la mitad de esas horas es considerada utilizable ya que es cuando el muelle provee de un torque constante.

El ETA 2892 es un calibre con torque más que suficiente y por eso se le usa como punto de partida para diseñar y construir relojes con complicaciones como cronógrafos, GMT, calendarios perpetuos y otros. Abajo se muestra la parte posterior de un Ball GMT. Este usa un movimiento ETA 2893, que no es sino un ETA 2893 con una modificación en el lado de la carátula para impulsar una manecilla extra que gira una vez cada 24 horas.

Las otras variantes del 2892 son el 2894, que se modifica para acoplarse con un módulo de cronógrafo como en los Mile Miglia de Chopard, el 2890 y 2891 que presentan la posibilidad de calendario perpetuo y fases lunares, el 2895 con módulo de visualización de segundero a las seis, el 2896 con gran fechador de doble dígito y finalmente el 2897 que ofrece la presentación de reserva de marcha.

En retrospectiva, el ETA 2892 puede tener una historia cincuentenaria, más no por eso ha dejado de evolucionar para mantenerse actual e impulsar un sinnúmero de complicaciones. En calibres de alto desempeño a precio razonable, el ETA 2892 no tiene comparación. Por más que les pese a algunos fabricantes de calibres de manufactura...

1 comentario:

Zilfina Marco Masias Rubio16 de abril de 2013 11:59
tengo un reloj zenith resistent 200m automatico maquina eta 2892-2 46-2 y3 quiero que me ayude a saber mas de el y si tiene algun precio gracias

lunes, 20 de mayo de 2013

New Blancpain Fifty Fathoms

Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands-On

Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands On   blancpain
This is the second "tribute" model in the Fifty Fathoms watch collection and to get both models straight you'll need to pay close attention to the names. This one is the Blancpain Tribute to Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung watch, whereas last year's model is the Blancpain Tribute to Fifty Fathoms watch (note no Aqua Lung at the end).
Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands On   blancpain
Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands On   blancpain
As it is a limited edition, I am not exactly sure how many pieces will be made but this model is very attractive. Is it more so than last year's model with the "no radiation" dial? Just a different look. This Tribute to the Aqua Lung has a more mainstream feel, which I like. The case and movement are the same as you'll find in the standard Fifty Fathoms watch. That means it is in steel and 45mm wide. It also has an in-house automatic movement with several days of power reserve and I love that blue-tinted nautilus style automatic movement on the rotor.
Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands On   blancpain
The original Aqua Lung model that this watch is based on is from the 1950s and is, of course, a collector's item. You can view a picture of it in the post here and see how Blancpain took steps to replicate the dial while maintaining the feel of the modern watch. The resulting dial is simple and utilitarian, but made nice by the high-end features and construction of the timepiece. I am still loving this watch even though it s a few years old (the base Fifty Fathoms I mean). I enjoy the size, curved sapphire over the bezel, and the great finishing on the case.
Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands On   blancpain
Blancpain Tribute To Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung Watch Hands On   blancpain
This model also gets a textile strap with large portholes in it. Not sure if the original had those but it looks cool. I feel pretty strongly that among high-end dive watches, the Fifty Fathoms is overlooked a lot. These tribute models are a good way of helping Blancpain remind people of the brand's heritage and history. Aside from the dial and some minor details, there isn't too much new for this year. Look for the Tribute to Fifty Fathoms Aqua Lung watches soon.

viernes, 10 de mayo de 2013

Cómo diferenciar un Rolex Autentico de una réplica By

Cómo diferenciar un Rolex Autentico de una réplica Rolex China  

Rolex una compañía suiza de relojes, es el principal productor de relojes de lujo del mundo. Muchos compran relojes Rolex por Internet sin verlos primero. Los Rolex falsos y bien hechos pueden ser costosos y son casi idénticos a uno genuino. Dado que hay un gran mercado de Rolex falsificados baratos, deberías asegurarte de que el que compraste sea auténtico o una buena replica de astrario que no se diferencan de los originales.

Detalles importantes a tener en cuenta :

Logo trasero:
Pon el reloj con la esfera hacia abajo para revisar su parte posterior. Algunas réplicas de Rolex baratas tienen una tapa trasera transparente que muestra el interior del reloj, pero los Rolex genuinos nunca vienen con una tapa de éstas. Los relojes genuinos de esta marca tampoco tienen grabados en la parte posterior, esceptuando el modelo daitona. Cuando te veas por primera vez un Rolex genuino, llevará una etiqueta adhesiva con un holograma sobre la tapa trasera. El holograma tendrá una corona de Rolex encima del número de referencia del reloj. Muchos replicas baratas chinas o  falsos rolex  llevarán una etiqueta adhesiva, pero no será con el diseño original ni tendrá un holograma en 3D.

Lupa de aumento:

Revisa el nivel de aumento del cristal encima de la fecha en el Rolex. En un reloj genuino, el aumento será de 2.5 veces; en tanto que sólo será de 1.5 veces, como máximo, en un Rolex falso barato.


Desenrosca la corona girándola en sentido contrario a las agujas del reloj. Si tienes un Submariner, un Sea Dweller o un Daytona, el reloj tendrá una corona Triplock , que tiene una  junta de goma en la base de ésta. Cuando haya salido la corona y se encuentre en la posición "neutra", podrás ver una junta de goma negra entre la corona y el reloj. Una réplica de Rolex barata china probablemente no tendrá la característica Triplock del sistema Rolex

Anagrama Rolex en el Cristal:

Sostén una lupa sobre la posición de las seis y busca la corona grabada en el cristal del Rolex. Desde 2002, Rolex comenzó a grabar una corona en el cristal debajo del "6". Desde finales de 2003 y principios de 2004, todos los relojes de esta marca la llevan grabada. El grabado en una réplica barata, si es que lo tiene, no tendrá las mismas características que el grabado de un Rolex original. Ve a "Recursos" y mira una fotografía del grabado de una réplica barata de china y de uno auténtico.

Quita la pulsera de ambos o de uno de los extremos de la caja. Esto lo puede hacer un profesional si no tienes una herramienta para quitar los pasadores y tiene un cierto grado de dificulta pudiendo rayar la carrula o bloque. Los números de referencia y de serie están grabados entre las asas de la caja del reloj. En una réplica de Rolex barata, el número está "grabado al ácido".

Sobre las Replicas Rolex :

Solo podras saber si tu Rolex  Replica  Astrario es o no un original si la llevas a un joyero para que examine el mecanismo. Al abrir la caja, Solo un relojero profesional podrá decir si se trata o no del mecanismo de un Rolex genuino o no.
En Astrario fabricamos las Replicas Rolex en España , con la mas Alta tecnologia y montamos solo mecanismo de alta calidad suiza ETA,s.a. o Unitas,sa.
Por todo lo anterior expuesto ofrecemos :

Un año de garantia en todos nuestras replica de relojes